《三十六計》第一套 勝戰計 36 Strategies / Stratagems


《三十六計》第一套  勝戰計 36 Strategies / Stratagems
佚名





總說

【原文】六六三十六,數中有術,術中有數。陰陽燮理,機在其空,機不可設,設則不中。

【按語】解語重數不重理,蓋理,術語自明;而數,則在言外,若徒知術之為術,而不知術中有數,則術多不應,且詭謀權術,原在事理之中,人情之內。徜事出不經,則詭異立見,詫世惑俗,而機謀洩矣。或曰:三十六計中,每六計成一套,第一套為勝戰計,第二套為敵戰計,第三套為攻戰計,第四套為混戰計,第五套為並戰計,第六套為敗戰計。
第一套  勝戰計

【原文】第一計‧瞞天過海備周則意怠;常見則不疑。陰在陽之內,不在陽之對。太陽,太陰。

【按語】陰謀作為,不能背於秘處行之。夜半行竊,僻巷殺人,愚俗之行,非謀士之所為也。
【中英對照】

第一計: 瞞天過海

Strategy 1: Fool the Emperor to Cross the Sea
薛仁貴瞞天過海
Syue Ren Guei Fool The Heaven To Cross The Sea
唐太宗 貞觀十七年,太宗親自出征,領軍三十萬東征。一天,來到大海邊,看到汪洋一片,便問一旁的官員過海的計策,大家這時只能互相對看。
On year 17 of Tang Tai Zong Jhen-guan’s reign, the emperor personally led his army in a military campaign out east to conquer and expand his domain. One day, the army arrived at seashore. Looking at the vast waters beyond, he asked his generals for any ideas on how to cross the sea. They looked at each other for any suggestions but had none.
這時忽然聽到一位居住海上的豪民求見太宗,並說三十萬過海的軍糧及方法已經準備好了。太宗便率領百官隨這位豪民來到海邊,這時只看到萬戶都用彩帳遮著,好不嚴密。
Suddenly, a civilian who lived by the sea requested to see the emperor. He informed the emperor that all the food for the three hundred thousand troops and the means to transport such a vast army across the sea has been prepared. The man led Emperor Tang Tai Zong and his officials to the sea. There, by the shore, they saw thousands of households tightly packed together and covered with colored tents.
這位豪民領著太宗進到屋內,屋內四周都是繡幔彩錦,太宗就和百官在這裡飲酒作樂。
This man led Tang Tai Zong into a luxurious house. Around the walls there were embroidered curtains and colored silks. There Tang Tai Zong and his officials drank, relaxed, and had fun.
不久,風聲四起,波響像雷一樣,杯盤跌落滿地,人也跟著搖晃,這時太宗立刻叫近臣揭開彩帳,一掀開,大家都呆住了,哪裡是在豪民家作客,已經和三十萬大軍在海上了﹗原來,將軍薛仁貴怕皇上不敢過海而退兵,所以就假扮豪民策劃了這個「瞞天過海」的計策。
Soon afterwards, the wind started to howl, and the sound of the waves felt like thunder. Glasses and plates fell all over the place, and no one could stand still. Startled, Tang Tai Zong ordered his chamberlains to draw back the curtains immediately, and they were stunned by what they saw. They were not partying at a civilian’s house like they thought. Instead, they were already at sea together with a giant armada of boats carrying the three hundred thousand soldiers. Later the emperor found out that his general Syue Ren Guei had thought up this deception. He was afraid that the emperor did not have the guts to cross the sea and would have withdrawn the troops and cancelled the military campaign. So he disguised himself as a civilian and devised such a scheme to “Fool the heaven (the emperor) to cross the sea”.
皇帝向來稱為「天子」,所以「天」指的就是皇帝,「瞞天過海」原意是瞞著皇帝,讓他平穩渡海。
In ancient china, the emperor was considered “The Son of Heaven”. And heaven is often used in literature to refer to the emperor. Therefore, the saying “fool the heaven to cross the sea” means to fool the emperor to cross the sea.
瞞天過海在兵法上是使用偽裝的手段,利用機會,趁對方不注意的時候,出其不意的行動,讓人措手不及。
In military parlance, “fool the heaven to cross the sea” means using disguise to create opportunities and striking suddenly when the enemy is unaware.

【原文】第二計‧圍魏救趙共敵不如分敵,敵陽不如敵陰。

【按語】治兵如治水,銳者避其鋒,如導疏;弱者塞其虛,如築堰。故當齊救趙時,孫子謂田忌曰:「夫解雜亂糾紛者不控拳,救鬥者,不搏擊,批亢搗虛,形格勢禁,則自為解耳。」
【中英對照】

第二計: 圍魏救趙

Strategy 2: Besiege Wei to Rescue Zhao
公元前354年,魏惠王派龐涓前去攻打趙國,於是龐涓就帶領五百戰車直奔趙國,並圍住都城邯鄲,雙方交戰一年多,最後趙王只好向齊國求救,於是齊威王就派田忌為將,並用孫臏為軍師領兵出發。
In 354 BC, the king of Wei appointed Pang Juan to invade Zhao. Pang Juan led an army of five hundred chariots and headed directly to Zhao to besiege its capital Handan (city in Hebei). The siege of Zhao lasted more than one year without success. Then the king of Zhao appealed to Ci for help. The king of Ci agreed and appointed Tian Ji as the general and Sun Bin as the military advisor to head the Ci army to rescue the besieged Handan (city in Hebei).
孫臏和龐涓原本是同門師兄弟,兩人都精通用兵之法,但是龐涓自覺能力不及孫臏,就用毒計把孫臏的雙腳弄斷,並在他的臉上刺字,讓他不能行走又羞於見人。於是孫臏就裝瘋,幸好得到齊國使者的幫助,順利逃到齊國。
Previously, Sun Bin and Pang Juan had both been disciples studying military strategy under the same master. Both of them became experts, but Sun Bin was more talented than Pang Juan, and Pang Juan was jealous of Sun Bin as a result. Through a vicious plot Pang Juan had Sun Bin’s legs broken and his face tattooed so that Sun Bin could never walk again nor appear in public out of shame. Afterwards, Sun Bin pretended to have gone mad and fled to Ci with the help of a diplomat of Ci.
田忌想直接攻打邯鄲,孫臏制止說:「現在魏國精兵全集中在邯鄲,如果我們直接攻打魏國,龐涓一定會回師解救,邯鄲之圍就會自動解除,中途我們再伏擊,龐涓的軍隊必吃敗仗。」田忌依計而行,果然,魏軍離開邯鄲,歸路中在桂陵又遭齊軍埋伏,魏軍大敗,龐涓只好退回大梁,趙國的困境也因此解除了。這便是歷史上有名的「圍魏救趙」的故事。
Tasked with the mission to save Handan (city in Hebei), Tian Ji wanted to attack Handan (city in Hebei) immediately. But Sun Bin advised against this. He told Tian Ji, “The elite army of Wei is camped outside Handan (city in Hebei) right now. If we attack them directly, we would be attacking into their strength. However, there is only a minimal force defending Wei right now. So if we attack Wei instead, we would be exploiting this weakness, and the army of Wei would be forced to return to defend their capital. This would lift the siege of Zhao automatically, achieving our first goal. In addition, we can ambush the returning army of Wei halfway and they would suffer losses.’’ Tian Ji followed Sun Bin’s advice, and everything happened as Sun Bin said it would. Once the army of Ci appeared outside Wei, the army of Wei immediately left Handan (city in Hebei) for home. On their way back, the army of Wei was ambushed by the Ci army at Guei Ling and was defeated. Pang Juan was forced to retreat to Dai Liang. The siege of Zhao was thus lifted. This is the famous history of “Besiege Wei to rescue Zhao.’’
圍魏救趙主張對敵方避實就虛,抓住敵方的弱點,使敵人受到牽制,然後用最少的代價去取得最完滿的成功。
Avoid attacking the enemy’s strength directly. Instead, attack its weakness in order to seize the initiative of battle, thereby achieving the best outcome with the least cost.
【原文】第三計‧借刀殺人敵已明,友未定,引友殺敵,不自出力,以損推演。

【按語】敵象已露,而另一勢力更張,將有所為,便應藉此力以毀敵人。如:鄭桓公將欲襲鄶,先向鄶之豪傑、良臣、辨智、果敢之士,盡書姓名,擇鄶之良田賂之,為官爵之名而書之,因為設壇場郭門之處而埋之,釁之以雞豭,若盟狀。鄶君以為內難也,而盡殺其良臣。桓公襲鄶,遂取之。諸葛亮之和吳拒魏,及關羽圍樊、襄,曹欲徙都,懿及蔣濟說曹曰:「劉備、孫權外親內疏,關羽得志,權心不願也。可遣人躡其後,許割江南以封權,則樊圍自釋。」曹從之,羽遂見擒。
【中英對照】

第三計 借刀殺人

Strategy 3: Kill with a Borrowed Sword
二桃殺三士
Killing Three Warriors With Two Peaches
春秋時齊景公有三位勇猛無比的手下,分別叫做公孫接、田開疆和古治子。
During the Spring and Autumn Period, there were three fearless warriors in Ci by the name of Gong Sun Jie, Tian Kai Jiang and Gu Jhih Zih.
有一天,宰相晏嬰從他們面前經過,照禮他們要起來行禮,他們卻坐著一動也不動,晏嬰當場沒說話,接著便馬上告訴齊景公這件事,並且勸說:「這三個人仗著自己立下不少大功勞,現在已經是目中無人,今天只是對我無禮,難保改天不會對大王無禮,我建議儘快將這三人除去,以免後患無窮。」景公向來十分敬重晏嬰的話,當場點頭表示同意,不過馬上露出面有難色說:「可是,怎樣去除呢?沒有人打得過他們;派人暗殺行刺,也不是他們的對手。」晏嬰聽完說:「我早料到了,我已經想好對付他們的計謀了。」便將「二桃殺三士」之計告訴了景公。只有兩個桃子的賞賜,讓他們三人「計功而食桃」。

One day, the Prime Minister Yan Ying walked past the three generals. Court protocol demands that they rise and bow to Yan Ying as a matter of courtesy. However, the three of them just sat there without acknowledging Yan Ying’s presence. Yan Ying said nothing on the spot. But afterwards, he told the king of Ci about this incident and advised him, “These three generals have become arrogant because they have accomplished much on the battlefield. Today they only showed disrespect towards me. But who knows whether or not they will show disrespect towards your Majesty in the future. I suggest that they be removed as soon as possible so as to avoid any future troubles.” The king of Ci, Jing gong, had a high respect for Yan Ying and always followed his advice. So he agreed with him, but he added, “But how? No one is strong enough to beat them. Nor is anybody capable of assassinating them.” Yan Ying
replied, “I have already figured out how to deal with them.” He then told Jing Gong his plan to kill three warriors with two peaches. Two peaches were to be awarded to the two who deserved it the most.
結果三人先是爭得不可開交,公孫接先說:「我的功勞最大,我空手制服野豬及活捉老虎。」便拿走一個桃子,田開疆說:「我曾用長矛擊退一整隊敵人。」也拿走一個桃;古治子氣得滿臉通紅說:「難道我的功勞就比你們小嗎?」便抽出劍做決鬥狀,沒想到其他兩個人竟然把桃子放回桌子,說:「我們應該重榮譽怎麼可以搶功,真是太慚愧了!」說完便刎頸而死,古治子看到也跟著刎頸,晏子不費吹灰之力,便剷除大患。二桃殺三士」並非因為桃子有毒而致人死命,而是政治權術中的殺人工具,也可以把這件事稱作「借桃殺人」。
The three of them argued fiercely in the beginning. Gong Sun Jie said first, “I caught a wild pig and a tiger alive with my bare hands. So I deserve the most.” Then he took one peach. Then Tian Kai Jiang said, “I defeated a whole squad of soldiers with my spear.” Then he took the other peach, too. Gu Jhih Zih turned red with anger,“Am I less worthy than you two?”He pulled his sword and challenged the other two to a duel. To everybody’s surprise, the other two put the peaches back onto the table and said, “Honor is more important than fighting over the rewards. We should be ashamed of ourselves.” That said, Gong Sun Jie and Tian Kai Jiang slit their own throats with their swords and died. Having watched this, Gu Jhih Zih, too, killed himself the same way. Thus Yan Ying was able to remove three potential threats to the country of Ci without lifting a finger. In this story, the peach was not poisonous but was used instead as a tool in political intrigue. The incident can therefore be referred to as “Kill with the peaches.”
借刀殺人指以冠冕堂皇的藉口,假借他人之手來達到自己的目的,「刀」只是一種比喻。
Openly use another to achieve one’s purpose. “Sword” is used here as a metaphor for the means to an end.
【原文】第四計‧以逸待勞困敵之勢,不以戰;損剛益柔。

【按語】此即致敵之法也。兵書云:「凡先處戰地而待敵者佚,後處戰地而趨戰者勞。故善戰者,致人而不致於人。」兵書論敵,此為論勢,則其旨非擇地以待敵,而在以簡馭繁,以不變應變,以小變應大變,以不動應動,以小動應大動,以樞應環也。管仲寓軍令於內政,實而備之;孫臏於馬陵道伏擊龐涓;李牧守雁門,久而不戰,而實備之,戰而大破匈奴。
【中英對照】

第四計:以逸待勞

Strategy 4: Wait for the Exhausted Enemy at Your Ease
三通鼓曹劌勝齊
Cao Suei Defeated Ci by Waiting until the Third Drumming
春秋時,齊王用鮑叔牙當大將領兵攻打魯國,魯莊王知道後十分害怕,大臣施伯便推薦用隱士曹劌來應戰,好不容易說服曹劌,但是他只願做參謀。
In the Spring and Autumn Period, the king of Ci appointed Bao Shu Ya as the general of his army to invade the country of Lu. The king of Lu was very frightened when he heard this. His minister Shih Bo recommended a hermit by the name of Cao Suei to lead the defense of Lu. It took a lot of effort to persuade Cao Suei to accept the post. But even then, he was only willing to work as a military adviser and not the general.
鮑叔牙因為以前打敗過魯軍,便十分輕敵,想一舉進攻活捉魯莊公,一時之間便戰鼓齊鳴,殺喊聲震天,士兵像排山倒海般衝過來。這時,曹劌制止莊公擊鼓進攻,只說:「等一下,現在敵人的氣勢正強,我們只要嚴加陣守,不要輕舉妄動。」
Bao Shu Ya did not take his enemy seriously because he had defeated the army of Lu before. And this time, he wanted to capture the king of Lu alive by attacking Lu directly. On the day of battle, the sound of drums and battle cries from the side of the Ci army was deafening, and the Ci army quickly charged the Lu army. At this time, Cao Suei dissuaded King Lu Jhuang from giving the signal to beat the drums telling the Lu soldiers to engage the Lu army. Cao Suei said, “Just wait a while. Right now the morale of the enemy is very high. We only need to defend ourselves at the moment. We need not act carelessly.”
齊軍衝過來後卻攻不進魯軍,被擋在軍陣外,這時鮑叔牙又再下令擊鼓進攻,還是攻不進去,他想魯軍一定是吃過敗仗,害怕得不敢接受挑戰,如果再攻一次,魯軍一定不戰而敗逃,於是第三次擊鼓進攻。

The advancing Ci army tried in vain to breach the defensive line of the Lu army. Frustrated, Bao Shu Ya ordered another charge without success. However, the failure of the Lu army to engage the charging Ci army both times let Bao Shu Ya to believe that the Lu army must be too scared to engage the Ci army in battle. He thought a third attack would surely break through and then the Lu army would collapse completely. So he ordered a third charge.
曹劌聽到齊軍第三次擊鼓,便對莊公說:「現在是擊鼓出兵的時機了。」魯軍一聽鼓聲便以迅雷不及掩耳的速度衝出,齊軍被打得七零八落,莊公想乘勝追擊,曹劌又制止,等看到地上的車輪及馬蹄印,再到車頂看齊軍逃跑的方向,才說可以追。事後,魯莊公問:「為什麼齊軍三通鼓鼓後才出擊?為何不馬上追齊兵?」曹劌說:「等敵人三通鼓後,敵人的士氣已不如剛開始那樣旺盛,這時我們才擊第一次鼓,我們的士兵自然是士氣高漲,再出其不意的進攻,一定會將敵人打敗。由於兵不厭詐,所以要觀察車馬足跡是不是真的很亂,表示是真的倉促中逃命的,這時才可以乘勝追敵。」

But this time, when Cao Suei heard the third drumming of the Ci army, he said to the king of Lu, “Now is the time to beat our drums and fight back!” The Lu army attacked as soon as they heard their own battle drums, and the Ci army’s lines soon collapsed under the charge. Subsequently, when the king of Lu wanted to pursue the fleeing enemy, once again Cao Suei advised the king to wait until he checked the prints of the horses and the chariots and observed the directions where the Ci army had fled. Then he gave the green light for the Lu army to pursue. Afterwards, the king asked Cao Suei, “Why wait until their third attack? And why not pursue the retreating Ci army right away?”Cao Suei replied,“After the third drumming, the morale of the enemy was not as high as in the first drumming. Instead, the morale of our soldiers was just at its peak because we were beating our drums for the first time. Also, we took the enemy by surprise because after what had happened after their first two charges, they expected us to just stand our ground instead of charge back at them, and this element of surprise is what guaranteed us a victory. Afterwards, since the risk of being deceived by the enemy always exists, we must check the wheel prints of the horses and the chariots in order to make sure that the enemy had indeed fled in panic before we could safely pursue the enemy.”

以逸待勞指當雙方開戰時,想要消耗對方的實力,並不一定要硬碰硬的對打,可以先按兵不動,等到對方疲憊時,就可以讓我們和對方實力相當。
When the battle begins, it is not necessary to fight a more powerful opponent immediately. Sometimes you could weaken your opponent by your inaction or by avoiding him in direct battle. Wait and conserve your strength while your opponent tires and becomes exhausted. This will allow you to equalize your relative strengths when you finally engage him in battle.
【原文】第五計‧趁火打劫敵之害大,就勢取利,剛決柔也。

【按語】敵害在內,則劫其地;敵害在外,則劫其民;內外交害,則劫其國。如:越王乘吳國內蟹稻不遺種而謀攻之,後卒乘吳北會諸侯於黃池之際,國內空虛,因而搗之,大獲全勝。
【中英對照】

第五計: 趁火打劫

Strategy 5: Loot a Burning House
勾踐復國

Gou Jian Restored His Country
春秋時期,吳、越兩國打仗多年,一開始是越王 勾踐被吳王 夫差打敗,而越王 勾踐只好對吳王 夫差俯首稱臣,於是勾踐決定每天要臥薪嘗膽來提醒自己亡國的教訓,經過二十年的暗中培養軍隊的實力後,終於完成備戰的工作,而此時的吳國由於奸臣當道,吳王 夫差竟然殺死了一代忠臣伍子胥,加上碰到乾旱的天災,造成國內作物枯死,河川乾涸。
In the Spring and Autumn Period, the countries of Wu and Yue were at war with each other for years. In the beginning, it was Gou Jian, the king of Yue, who was defeated by Fu Chai, the king of Wu. So Gou Jian had to bow to Fu Chai and offer himself as Fu Chai’s loyal vassal. But Gou Jian was not defeated in spirit. Everyday, Gou Jian tasted the gall bladder to remind himself of the bitter taste of defeat and to reaffirm his desire for revenge. Secretly, he was recruiting and rearming his military again. After 20 years, Gou Jian was finally ready for war again. By this time, Wu was governed by corrupt officials, and its king Fu Chai had grown arrogant and inept. Fu Chai even executed Wu Zih Syu, one of his most loyal officials, because he had suggested that Gou Jian be executed in case Gou Jian seeks to revolt in the future. In addition, Wu was plagued by a severe draught. Crops died and the rivers dried out.
到了這個地步,吳王 夫差仍然執迷不悟,十分驕傲狂妄,認為自己可以當上東周諸國的霸主,就帶著國內全部的精
兵北上中原,和各國諸侯在黃池會盟,結果造成國內兵力不足,人民生活困苦,一片混亂。
But even in this time of crisis, Fu Chai refused to come to his senses. He was arrogant enough to believe that he should be the leader of all the countries. So he led his army to the Central Plains of China to meet the other kings. As a result, Wu was left with a minimal army to defend itself, while its people were living in hardship. In sum, Wu was in chaos and extremely vulnerable.
越王 勾踐看到這個情形,覺得機會不可多得,便在范蠡和文種的幫助下,一舉大兵將吳國給消滅了。
Gou Jian saw this as a golden opportunity. So he launched his attack at Wu and destroyed it, avenging his defeat 20 years ago and restoring the country of Yue.
計趁火打指當敵人陷入困境,情況十分危急時,我們要趁機行動,從中取得利益,仗著強勢來攻打弱勢的謀略。
When the enemy is in hardship or in crisis, we must seize the opportunity and exploit the situation to our advantage by attacking him when he is at his weakest.
【原文】第六計‧聲東擊西敵志亂萃,不虞,坤下兌上之象。利其不自主而取之。

【按語】西漢,七國反,周亞夫堅壁不戰。吳兵奔壁之東南陬,亞夫便備西北;已而吳王精兵果攻西北,遂不得入。此敵志不亂,能自主也。漢末,朱雋圍黃巾於宛,張圍結壘,起土山以臨城內,鳴鼓攻其西南,黃巾悉眾赴之;雋自將精兵五千,掩其東北,遂乘虛而入。此敵志亂萃,不虞也。然則聲東擊西之策,須視敵志亂否為定。亂,則勝;不亂,將自取敗亡,險策也。
【中英對照】

第六計: 聲東擊西

Strategy 6: Sound East While Attack West
韓信生擒魏王魏豹
Han Sin Captured the King of Wei Alive
西元前205年,劉邦趁著項羽討伐齊國的時候,東渡黃河,本來已經投降的魏王 魏豹,沒想到他又叛變,於是就派韓信西進平定魏國。
In 205 BC, while Siang Yu was on an expedition against Ci, Liou Bang crossed the Yellow River. Wei Bao, the king of Wei, suddenly rose in revolt against Liou Bang despite the fact that he had surrendered earlier. As a result, Liou Bang sent his general Han Sin to put down the revolt in Wei.
魏豹派柏直為統帥,並將主力軍調到黃河東岸的「蒲阪」,希望就近監視漢軍。韓信則在蒲阪渡口的對岸紮營,並把船集中在江邊,到了夜裡到處都插滿火把,完全是隨時會渡江進攻的樣子,柏直便下令不准任何船過江,其實韓信早已派主力部隊,在上游八十里處的「夏陽」,用空瓶及空桶搭了一座臨時橋。所以,當魏軍守在蒲阪渡口,漢軍早已渡過黃河,並且對魏國的首都展開進攻,這時柏直想趕回首都,早已來不及了,最後魏王 魏豹就被韓信活捉。

Wei Bao appointed Bo Jhih as the general of his army and moved his elite troops to Pu Ban, a town on the east bank of the Yellow River to keep Han Sin’s army under surveillance. And Han Sin camped on the west bank of the Yellow River. He assembled hundreds of ships alongside the river in preparation for a river crossing. When night fell, torches could be seen all cross the west bank. It appeared that Han Sin’s army was ready to cross the river at any moment. Seeing this, Bo Jhih ordered his troops to guard the west bank of the river and to destroy any ship that tried to cross. However, unknown to Bo Jhih, Han Sin had already sent the bulk of his forces to Sia Yang, a place which was 80 kilometers up the Yellow River. There, Han Sin’s army set up a temporary bridge across the river by using empty bottles and barrels. While the Wei army stayed put at Pu Ban for days to defend against a river crossing, Han Sin’s army had long crossed the Yellow River and had already launched an attack on the capital of Wei. By the time Bo Jhih heard the news, it was too late for him to rush back to the capital. And Han Sin was able to capture Wei Bao alive.
聲東擊西製造假象,讓敵人以為我們要攻打東邊,進而做出錯誤的決定,實際上卻是從西邊進行攻打,是一種出奇制勝的方法。
Create a feint to fool the enemy into believing that we are attacking the east when in fact we are attacking the west, thereby causing the enemy to make the wrong troop deployments. This is one way to create a surprise attack.