Confusing Words Clarified Group R

Confusing Words Clarified Group Rhttp://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/4345/?letter=C&spage=22
rabbet, rabbit, rabid
rabbet (RAB it)
1. A groove cut into the surface of an item designed to match another piece so they can be joined: "The joiner cut a rabbet in the piece of cherry wood as he was building the new cabinet."
2. To cut a groove in the surface of an item: "To rabbet the piece of fine mahogany requires patience, care, and the proper tools."
rabbit (RAB it)
1. Any member of the family of mammals characterized by long ears, soft fur and strong rear legs: "We watched the rabbit hop across the lawn."
2. The pelt or skin of such an animal: "My new cloak is made of soft rabbit fur."
3. A member of a track team who sets the running pace for other team mates as part of a long distance run: "My cousin trained to be the rabbit for the cross country racing team."
rabid (RAB id)
1. Very violent, going to extremes in terms of expressing one emotions and feelings or opinions: "She was a politician with rabid supporters."
"She became almost rabid in her defense of her pet rabbit chewing behavior when visiting her friend."
2. Affected with rabies: "We were fearful of a rabid dog that was running around in the neighborhood."
 
rabble, rubble, rubber, rubbish, ruble,
rabble (RAB uhl)
1. A disorderly and unorganized group of people: "The rabble gathered in the town square to demand the end of the monopoly on coal."
2. An iron bar, usually with a bent end, used to rake, to stir, or to puddle melted iron: "At the smelter, the worker using the rabble to rake the melted iron requires extensive training."
3. To stir or to mix something by using an iron bar: "He tried to rabble the melted iron but it was not hot enough."
rubble (RUHB uhl)
1. Broken fragments of something which is often useless: "The pile of rubble left over from the building construction project needed to be hauled away."
2. Worn or broken stones, etc. that are used as filling in the construction of walls: "The stone mason saved the rubble from his work to be used later when the wall was built."
3. Unfinished stone from a quarry: "The sculptor used the rough piece of rubble from the quarry to carve a beautiful statue."
rubber (RUHB uhr)
A strong substance that stretches and which is made out of chemicals or from the juice of a tropical tree: "He will be wearing rubber gloves and safety goggles while driving a car with rubber tires through the circle of fire during the exhibition."
rubbish (RUHB ish)
Useless or rejected material; trash: "The trucks will collect the rubbish on Tuesday."
ruble, rouble (ROO buhl)
A Russian coin: "After my vacation in Russia, I saved a ruble as a reminder of the great time I had there."
 
race, race
race (RAYS)
1. A current of water flowing through a narrow channel, often in an industrial context: "The mill race was created by damming the river and diverting the flow of the water."
2. A contest of speed based on a set course and specific time frame: "The cross country race was set to begin this afternoon and the runners would pass through both flat land and hills before returning to the starting gate."
3. A rivalry or contest between two or more groups with the goal of winning something; such as, a pennant: "The two colleges participated in an annual race for the pennant and the prize money."
4. A track or groove through which something slides or rolls: "The ball bearings rolled down the race and into the gear box for the car."
? 5. To run or participate in a competition based on speed and timing: "The team decided to race in spite of the mist and cold weather."
6. To move at maximum speed: "My cousin will race his car around the track in hopes of breaking the speed record."
race (RAYS)
1. A family or group of people united by common characteristics or interests: "The Nordic race has a history of bravery and seafaring explorations."
2. A grouping of people sharing traits that are passed on through generations and whose traits have become distinctive to that group: "Typically the Aboriginal race in North America has darker hair than Europeans."
 
rack, wrack
rack (RAK)
1. High clouds that are blown about by the wind: "We could see the rack of clouds moving across the sky."
2. An instrument or tool designed for torture so as to cause extreme pain: "The museum had an example of a rack that was used for torture during the Middle Ages."
3. The manger for holding food for livestock: "The rack was filled with fresh hay for the cattle."
4. A net or framework to be placed in a river to catch fish or floating matter: "The forester installed the rack in the polluted stream in hopes of gathering up the flotsam that was floating in the river."
5. Antlers, typically in sets of two, from such animals as moose: "There was a fine rack of antlers displayed in the museum of wild life from the park."
wrack (RAK)
1. Violent destruction of something: "The storm is so violent tonight I fear it will cause the wrack of the quay in the harbor."
2. Seaweed or kelp: "We watched the people of the seaside village harvest wrack and sell it as a crop."
"Once I had some wrack pie, an experience I never want to repeat."
3. To ruin or to destroy completely: "With the loss of the livestock, the farmer felt he was on the road to wrack and ruin."
 
racket, racquet
racket (RAK it)
1. clattering noise or excitement: "We could hear quite a racket in the hall and wondered what was going on."
2. An illegal scheme or enterprise involving fraud: "He was a member of a criminal racket."
3. Light weight sports equipment consisting of a handle at one end and a net of thread or gut in an oval shape at the other end which is typically used to bat a tennis ball or a badminton shuttlecock back and forth with an opponent: "I use an aluminum racket which has helped improve my tennis game considerably."
racquet (RAK it)
An alternative spelling for racket usually occurring in the plural to refer to a game involving two to four players; including, a racket (racquet), a ball, and played within a walled court: "My sister and I played a game of racquet ball (racketball) every day and were the local champions."
There are those who say tennis is nothing more than a racket (with a ball) and as far as the players are concerned, love means nothing.
 
raid, rayed
raid (RAYD)
1. A hostile or surprise attack typically involving a small force: "The children tried to raid the cookie jar but their mother stopped them."
2. A sudden invasion or daring operation typically carried out by officers of the law against suspected criminals or wrong doers: "The police captain led the raid against the river pirates and captured the leader."
3. The recruitment by a company or business of personnel from a competitor: "The personnel officer staged a corporate raid of senior employees from a competing company."
4. To swindle public funds; an attempt to depress the stock market by selling off a lot of stock: "The corrupt town treasurer attempted to raid the treasury and to defraud the townspeople."
"The bank managers were manipulating the stock market by deciding to raid their bank stock."
rayed (RAYD)
1. To have emitted radiation: "The laboratory equipment rayed the specimen for a brief period of time."
2. To have extended outward from a central focus: "In her primitive drawing, she drew yellow lines showing how the light rayed from the sun towards the earth."
3. To have been exposed to or placed in the path of radiation: "The scientist was very upset because the box of specimens had accidentally been rayed by an unskilled technician."
 
rail, rail, rail
rail (RAYL)
1. To use harsh or abusive language: "We could hear the actress rail against the director even though we were not in the room."
2. Any of a number of wading birds (Rallidae) similar to cranes but typically smaller with short round wings and long toes for running in the mud of the swamps where they live: "We went on a bird expedition and saw a rare rail in the swamp."
3. To install fencing: "The project of the day was to rail the corral for the horses that were being delivered next week."
4. The fencing for a racetrack: "The crowd pressed against the rail during the excitement of the race."
5. A pole extending between two posts and whose function is to create a barrier: "The new rail at the gate was painted bright red."
rail (RAYL)
One of the bars of steel that form a train's track: "The workers found a cracked rail on the intercity train track today."
rail (RAYL)
To complain angrily about something: "The old man felt he had to rail at the doctor because as a patient he waited two hours and was still unable see anyone for a medical examination."
 
rain, reign, rein
rain (RAYN)
1. To give in an abundant manner: "During the holidays, her relatives tend to rain presents on her because she is the only child."
2. Drops of water formed by the condensation of vapor and which falls from the atmosphere: "As we stood by the window, we watched the rain begin to fall on the lawn."
"It started to rain before we could put up our umbrellas."
reign (RAYN)
1. The time during which an individual who is considered royalty holds political influence or control: "The reign of the king lasted over forty years and was believed to be a peaceful time in the country."
2. To possess a position of presumed authority, often without much actual political influence or power: "She will reign as consort until her son is old enough to be the king."
3. To be prevalent or commonly occurring: "At the end of the school year, the reign of confusion was wide spread as the students cleaned their lockers and said goodbye to their friends and teachers."
rein (RAYN)
1.On controlling or restraining influence: "He kept a tight rein on the finances of the town so there would be no wasteful spending."
2. Unhampered opportunity: "She was given free rein in planning the party for the end of the year."
3. The strap which is fastened to the bit in an animal's mouth and by which the animal is controlled or directed: "She held each rein for her horse in her right hand as she mounted it."
4. To stop or to slow oneself or an animal: "He had to rein in his enthusiasm for the new bookecause he was about to bore all his friends."
 
rains, reigns, reins
rains (RAYNZ)
1. Giving or distributing in a generous manner: "Every Christmas season good will rains in our community."
2. The downpour of water from clouds: "It rains at least three times a week in the rain forest."
reigns (RAYNZ)
1. Time periods that an individual rules a country often through a hereditary process: "The reigns of the three kings extended for more than 150 years."
2. To exert power or management of an institution or place: "She reigns supreme in her kitchen."
reins (RAYNZ)
1. Slowing or stopping oneself or an animal: "We noticed that although the horse is very lively, the rider reins him in very well."
2. The straps attached to the bit placed in the mouth of animals for the purpose of guiding or restraining them: "She holds the reins loosely in her hands while she is driving the team and wagon."
When you have spoken the word, it reigns over you. When it is unspoken, you reign over it. Arabian Proverb
 
raise, rays, raze
raise (RAYZ)
1. To lift something or someone to a higher position: "A small box to stand on will raise the speaker so she can speak comfortably into the microphone."
2. To elevate in terms of status or position: "The promotion will raise my colleague to a managerial position at the factory."
3. An increase in the amount of money paid for a task or undertaking: "With her new position, my friend asked for a raise in her salary."
4. To enhance or to invigorate: "Such a sunny day will raise her spirits."
5. The process by which funds are collected for an undertaking: "We hope to raise a large sum of money to contribute to the children's charity."
6. To bring an animal or child to maturity: "There is a saying which indicates that it takes a village to raise a child."
7. To question or to bring forth a topic for discussion or debate: "He said he would raise the question of new prices for bus tickets at the next board meeting."
8. To cause the creation of a blister or sore: "If I do not wear gloves when I rake leaves, the friction will raise blisters on my hands."
9. To increase the bid or offer on something: "At the auction, the auctioneer attempted to raise the bids on the priceless piece of silver."
10. To increase or to cause the elevation of the level or baseline of something: "The heavy rains will raise the level of the river."
"The landlord told her that he was going to raise her rent significantly next year."
rays (RAYZ)
1. Any of a number of fish with flattened bodies and their eyes appearing on the flat upper surfaces: "We could see a colony of rays drifting in the bay from our boat."
2. Beams of light: "The sun rays shined through the window illuminating the room and making it feel warm and comfortable."
3. Lines drawn from a common center: "She depicted the sun by drawing several rays emanating from the round yellow circle in the corner of her picture."
raze (RAYZ)
To demolish, tear down, or to reduce something: "The bull dozers will raze the grove this afternoon to make way for new buildings."
"The carver used a small knife to raze the surface of the block of wood he was working on so he could make an ornament."
They had to raze the old building and build a new one before the sun’s rays wouldn't raise the temperatures so much.
A landlord told his tenant, "I'm afraid I will have to raise your rent." The renter responded by saying, "I wish you would; I'm sure I can't raise it."
 
raised, razed
raised (RAYZ'd)
1. To have lifted or elevated something or someone to a position higher than originally indicated: "Her election as mayor raised her status among her colleagues and included a raise in salary."
"The crane raised the box from the floor to the shipping dock."
2. To have collected funds in support of an undertaking: "She was surprised to realize that she had raised enough money for her trip by selling her homemade cookies at the Farmers' Market."
3. To have cultivated, to have influenced, or to have brought an individual to a point of maturity: "She raised her son to love books and to use the library regularly."
"Listening to the radio broadcasts of opera every weekend raised her interest in this style of singing and she bought tickets often to attend her favorite presentations."
4. To have created a sore or blister: "I raised a blister on my foot because my shoes were too tight."
5. To have caused an increase in the cost of something: "The merchant raised the price of the carpet when he realized that the tourist was interested in buying it."
6. To have caused the elevation or base level of something: "She raised her test performance scores significantly by studying every day after school."
razed (RAYZ'd)
To have torn down or destroyed something: "When he returned from his vacation, he was surprised to see that his favorite building had been razed and a golf course was being built in its place."
 
rake, rake, rake
rake (RAYK)
A long-handled implement with a row of projecting teeth at its head, used especially to gather leaves or to loosen or smooth earth: "In the fall, the gardener used a rake to tidy the yard before the snows came."
rake (RAYK)
1. To slant or cause to incline from the perpendicular: "The stage designer decided to rake the stage for the opera in such a manner that it made it difficult for the singers to walk easily."
2. The angle between the cutting edge of a tool and a plane perpendicular to the working surface to which the tool is applied: "The blacksmith repaired the broken rake so the farmer could complete his chores."
rake (RAYK)
A man who leads an immoral life and is mainly interested in physical pleasure: "Our handsome neighbor became a selfish rake when he grew older and was not welcome in our family home."
 
rally, rally
rally (RAL ee), verb
1. To call together for a common purpose to support or to oppose something; to assemble: "The senator's political party will rally tomorrow afternoon to support his re-election."
2. To reassemble and to restore to order: "As the deadline approached, the Captain worked to rally the troops before the next attack."
3. To rouse or to revive from inactivity or decline: "We were hoping that our team would rally in the fourth quarter and win the game."
rally (RAL ee), noun
1. A public meeting to support or to oppose someone or something: "Protesters staged a rally to push for greater efforts by governments to come up with solutions to solve global warming conditions."
2. An increase in price or value after a decrease in such values: "The stock prices improved after the U.S. dollar's rally in today's trading."
 
ramp, ramp, rant
ramp (RAMP)
1. An inclined surface or roadway connecting different levels: "She increased her speed as she entered the ramp leading onto the highway."
2. A mobile staircase by which passengers board and leave an aircraft: "The airline steward stood at the base of the ramp, assisting the passengers as they departed from the plane."
3. A concave bend of a handrail where a sharp change in level or direction occurs; such as, at a stair landing: "She held onto the ramp as she descended the stairs to ensure she did not fall."
ramp (RAMP)
To increase or to cause something to increase in speed, size, etc.: "The work started slowly, but now they will ramp it up to full speed."
"The company will simply have to ramp up production in order to complete the orders."
rant (RANT)
1. To talk loudly and in a way that shows anger: "You can rant and rave all you want, but it's not going to change anything."
2. To complain in a way that is unreasonable: "Just about every day we had to listen to his rant about the evils of the auto industry."
 
rap, rap, wrap
rap (RAP)
1. A sharp blow or criticism: "The critic wrote a powerful rap about the new play, describing it as slow paced and boring."
"The teacher delivered a rap on his knuckles because he tried to blame his friend for the broken window."
2. A criminal charge or adverse consequence for an action: "He took the rap for having been involved in the hold up at the gas station."
3. To make a short, abrupt sound: "He would often rap his baton on the music stand so he could get the attention of the orchestra players."
4. The least or minimum interest: "He does not care a rap about the rock concert that is coming to town next week."
rap (RAP)
1. A type of music that has words that are spoken with rhythm instead of being sung: "They listen mostly to rap these days."
2. To perform rap music or a rap song: "He plans to rap with the band tonight."
wrap (RAP)
1. A piece of clothing, typically worn as a coat or covering: "She has a new wrap to wear to the concert next week."
2. To embrace or to encircle: "She tried to wrap her little cousin in a big hug but the child ran away to play."
3. To put on a piece of clothing: "She would wrap herself in the heavy jacket before going outside into the cold."
4. To enfold, to bundle, or to conceal: "They will wrap the delicate china in many layers of paper before putting it in a box."
 
rapped, rapt, wrapped
rapped (RAPT)
To have caused a short, sharp blow or hit: "The highway man rapped on the window with his crop to get the attention of the beautiful girl who was waiting for him."
rapt (RAPT)
Uplifted, completely absorbed, or carried away with emotion: "She listened to the singer with rapt attention, scarcely breathing."
"He felt rapt and tearful when he listened to the dirge being played on bag pipes."
wrapped (RAPT)
1. To have put on clothing, typically to be warm: "She wrapped herself in a voluminous cloak against the strong wind."
2. To have packaged something carefully: "The large painting was wrapped in several layers of canvas to protect it during transit."
3. To have complete control over someone: "She has him wrapped around her little finger; that is, she controls him completely and he always does what she wants him to do."
 
rappel, repel
rappel (ra PEL)
To descend a steep slope or vertical face using a rope that is secured at the top and passed through a series of coils or a harness around the body: "One of my hobbies was to rappel down a steep incline by using a double rope secured above and placed around my body, usually under my left thigh and over my right shoulder as I moved it out gradually in my descent."
repel (ri PEL)
1. To ward off or to keep away; to drive back: "While camping, we constantly had to repel insects; especially, mosquitoes."
2. To offer resistance to; to fight against: "Our troops were making efforts to repel an invasion by the terrorists.
 
rapper, wrapper
rapper (RAP uhr)
1. An individual who taps or hits against something: "We wondered who the rapper could be who was knocking on the window."
2. An individual who performs African-American music in which the lyrics are chanted to the accompaniment of music: "As I walked through the park, I stopped to listen to the rapper who was sitting on a bench and performing."
3. A door knocker attached to the door by a hinge: "I thought the ornamental rapper on the door looked just like my uncle."
wrapper (RAP uhr)
1. A paper cover of a book that is not attached to the book itself: "The colorful wrapper on my new book enticed me to read the book right away."
2. An article of clothing that is worn closely around the body: "She wore a colorful wrapper in the morning when she ate her breakfast before she dressed for the day."
3. An individual whose responsibility it is to enfold an object in a protective covering: "For my holidays, I worked as a wrapper in the gift department at the department store."
 
rare, scarce
rare (RAIR)
1. A reference to describe the degree of cooking for a piece of meat allowing the center of the piece to remain red: "I always order my steak rare when I go out for dinner."
2. Distinguished by unusual merit or appeal: "At the gallery, we viewed the rare collection of ivory miniatures."
3. Superlative, seldom occurring: "We saw a rare bird while we were out on a hike."
scarce (SKAIRS)
1. Intentionally not present: "The children were told to make themselves scarce when the parents were decorating the house."
2. Limited quantity in comparison to the interest or demand; so, not easy to procure: "The grocer reported that lemons were scarce at this time of year."
 
rational, rationale
rational (RASH uh nuhl)
1. Having good judgment: "She was a rational person and did not make hasty decisions."
2. Sane, lucid, and able to make sound judgments: "The doctor indicated that the patient was rational and should not be detained in the hospital."
3. Having the ability to explain in a sensible manner: "Our explanation for being late seemed rational to us but not to our parents."
rationale (rash" uh NAL)
The underlying explanation or reason for a situation: "The president of the company explained his rationale for the layoffs at the factory."
"My friend explained the rationale behind his early retirement, but I still can't comprehend the rationale for his decision."
 
ravage, ravish
ravage (RAV ij)
1. Violent damage or destruction: "We were afraid that the severe winds would ravage the countryside."
2. To cause reckless destruction: "The revolutionaries marched across the city planning to ravage the palace of the king."
ravish (RAV ish)
1. To be overcome with emotion: "I was told that the beauty of the valley would ravish my soul."
2. To take away or to seize with violence: "The police investigated an accusation by the woman that the man tried to ravish (rape) her."
 
raven, ravin, ravine
raven (RAY uhn)
1. A large shiny black bird found in Europe, North America, and Asia: "We watched the raven glide above us in the clear sky."
2. To eat or to feed in a greedy manner: "He was so hungry after his long hike that he started to raven his meal, taking large mouthfuls at a time."
ravin (RAV uhn)
The act of seizing something as prey: "The large black raven swooped down over the field in an attempt to ravin the small field creatures."
ravine (ruh VEEN)
A small and narrow valley that has been created by a river, but not as large as a canyon: "There is a ravine across the street from my home where I frequently go hiking."
 
read, red
read (RED)
1. Having examined and grasped the meaning of written or printed characters, words, or sentences: "She read the newspaper earlier this morning before she went to work."
2. To have gained information through the perusal of information available in printed, written, or computer form: "I have read the entire list of words and realize that I did not always know the definitions."
3. To have reviewed something looking for potential errors: "I read the printer's proofs of my new book and was very pleased."
4. To have ordered or reprimanded severely: "Our mother read the riot act to us because we refused to go to bed when she told us to do it earlier."
red (RED)
1. A color that is part of a visible spectrum and resembles blood or a ruby stone: "The red candy dish my mother gave me was a lovely glass dish on a silver stem."
2. A term used to describe an economic or financial loss: "The company was in the red last year and the possibility of a turn-about in the near future is minimal."
 
read, reed
read (REED)
1. Having the ability to examine and to grasp the meaning of written or printed material in a given language or notation: "Her latest novel is a good read."
2. To peruse or to look over something carefully: "I will read the author’s notes after I complete reading the book."
3. To follow a course of study at school or independently: "I fully intend to read the classics when I go to school next semester."
reed (REED)
1. The process of making corrugations; such as, on the edge of a coin: "He was a famous engineer who developed the machine to reed the coins for the mint."
2. Any of a number of tall grasses that often grow in wet areas and frequently have jointed stems: "This is an example of a reed from the marsh and as a group they provide a sanctuary for many birds."
3. A wind instrument made of a hollowed piece of wood: "She played in the reed section of the orchestra."
4. Part of the equipment needed when setting up a loom which is used to space the warp threads evenly: "Her husband made the reed which she used when she was setting up her loom in anticipation of weaving a blanket."
Those who don't read have no advantage over those who can't.
 
readable, legible
readable (REE duh buhl)
Printed or written information that is interesting to peruse: "She just published a very readable mystery book."
legible (LEJ uh buhl)
That which is capable of being deciphered: "She had very legible handwriting because she practiced when she was in school."
 
real, reel
real (REEL)
Existing, factual, or genuine: "Her real name in this real world really does exist."
reel (REEL)
1. A cylindrical device on which something is wound; such as a reel of thread, string, or cord, etc. is wrapped around: "He bought a new rod and fishing reel."
2. To pull something in: "She wanted to reel in a fish that she caught by turning the reel of a fishing rod."
3. To be shocked, confused, and upset: "She could only reel and stagger from the sudden death of her husband."
 
reality, realty
reality (ree AL i tee)
1. Something that necessarily exists or must be: "The availability of fresh water is a reality of life."
2. The overwhelming sum of events and things: "The reality of the situation is that we were lost and so we arrived home very late."
3. The quality or state of existence: "My dream to be a nurse became a reality when I graduated from the university."
realty (REE uhl tee)
Property that may include land and/or buildings: "In her will, my mother left me her realty which included her house, a cottage, and the farm."
 
realize, know
realize (REE uh lighz")
1. To accomplish: "She began to realize her dream of being a pilot by taking flying lessons on the weekend."
2. To cause or to appear to be in existence: "She was able to realize her characters in her book through careful descriptions."
3. To be completely aware of a situation: "He seemed to realize the danger he was facing by choosing to cross the desert by night."
know (NOH)
1. To have direct information about something: "I know for a fact that my examination is next week."
2. To be convinced or aware of the truth about something: "After reading the budget report, I feel I know what the real situation is at the company."
3. To have a straightforward, practical understanding of something: "I know how to bake bread and it is my latest hobby."
 
ream, ream
ream (REEM), as a noun
1. A measurement of a quantity of paper, typically 500 individual sheets of paper to a package: "We bought a ream of green paper on which to print the announcements."
2. A very large amount; usually used in the plural: "There were reams of material to read before going to the meeting."
ream (REEM), as a verb
1. To enlarge or to widen a hole using a specifically designed tool (reamer): "The plumber had to ream the drain pipe so the water could drain properly."
2. To squeeze the juice out of fruit: "I will use the juicer to ream the oranges so we can have fresh orange juice for breakfast."
 
rebound, redound
rebound (ree BOUND)
1. To bounce or to spring back after impact with another object: "The ball will rebound from the wall of the indoor ball court if you hit it hard enough."
2. A sharp increase or recovery: "There was a sharp rebound of prices on the stock market today."
3. The reaction to a set back or disappointment: "The gossip was that she was on the rebound from a broken engagement to be married."
redound (ri DOUND)
To have a particular result, used especially to describe how something affects someone or something or affects the opinion that people have about someone or something: "It will redound to his credit that he worked so hard to prevent this crisis."
 
recede, reseed
recede (ri SEED)
1. To move back or away from: "The train seemed to recede into the distance as we were watching."
2. To return the ownership of something to the previous owner: "The ownership of the farm will recede to the old man who used to live there."
reseed (ri SEED)
1. To sow or to plant new seeds on a piece of land: "After the construction was completed, we had to reseed our front lawn."
2. To plant an area through the natural distribution of seeds: The grass was allowed to mature so that it would reseed the pasture naturally."
 
receipt, recipe, reseat
receipt (ri SEET)
A written acknowledgment of something delivered or given to an individual or business: "I had to sign the receipt for the delivery of the bricks to build the patio in my garden."
"Open immediately upon receipt of the letter and remember that the enclosed form should be completed and returned within 30 days of receipt."
recipe (RES uh pee")
1. A set of instructions for doing something; "I saw a new recipe for chocolate cake that I want to bake."
2. A formula or steps to take for achieving something: "She seems to have found the recipe for success in her writing."
reseat (ree SEET)
To provide a different place to sit, for example at a concert: "The usher will reseat us during the intermission because there is a post blocking our view of the pianist on stage."
 
recent, resent, resent, rescind
recent (REE suhnt)
Relating to time or events happening not long ago: "The recent headlines in the newspaper were very disturbing."
"She is a recent university graduate who made a recent change in where she is living."
resent (ri SENT)
To cause to be sent out or returned again: "The package that was returned will need to be resent once the address is corrected."
resent (ri ZENT)
To express ill will or displeasure at something: "The speaker announced, 'I resent the implications of that question'."
"They resent being told that they are too old to continue working."
rescind (ri SIND)
1. To annul by canceling or recalling: "The publisher decided to rescind his previous decision to cancel the book order and agreed to send out 600 copies to the book store."
2. To end (a law, contract, agreement, etc.) by officially stating that something is no longer valid: "The company decided to rescind its offer of pay raises because of the poor economic situation."
 
recitation, resuscitation
recitation (res" i TAY shuhn)
1. The act of reading out loud: "The poet gave a public recitation of her most famous writings."
2. The act or process of enumerating information: "When asked by the teacher for his report, the youth gave a recitation of the facts about earth quakes."
resuscitation (ri suhs" i TAY shuhn)
The process by which someone is brought back from a state of unconsciousness: "The paramedics were able to provide emergency resuscitation to the patient so he could be transferred to a hospital."
 
recluse, recuse
recluse (REK loos", ri KLOOS)
1. An individual who has chosen to withdraw from society by living in solitude: "During her retirement, she became a recluse and rarely went out in public."
2. Characterized by a withdrawal from social contact: "His recluse behavior was accentuated by his unusual costume when he did go out in public."
recuse (ri KYOOZ)
1. In law, to object to, to protest, or to challenge a judge, juror, etc.: "He was dissatisfied with the judicial process and sought to recuse the judge on the basis of incompetence."
2. To disqualify oneself from acting in a particular situation: "The mayor sought to recuse herself from the committee because of a personal conflict of interest."
Recusal is the process by which a judge is disqualified on the objection of either party (or disqualifies himself or herself) from hearing a lawsuit because of self-interest, bias, or prejudice.
 
reek, wreak
reek (REEK)
To have a very strong and unpleasant odor: "The reek of the stinking garbage in the kitchen was more than we could tolerate and so was the added reek of smoke in the room."
wreak (REEK)
1. To inflict vengeance or punishment upon someone: "The gangs will wreak mayhem in the city if they are not brought under control."
2. To express anger, malevolence, or resentment: "The boy's father will wreak his anger on his son when he finally gets home tonight."
3. To cause something very harmful or damaging: "The storm is expected to wreak (and even wreck [REK]) havoc and extensive damage along the coast today."
 
reference, reverence
reference (REF uhr uhns, REF ruhns)
1. A written or verbal statement describing the qualifications of an individual, typically prepared by someone who is well acquainted with the applicant: "The reference letter for the candidate was outstanding."
2. The act of mentioning something in speech or in writing: "He made reference to the agreement he made with the company regarding his retirement."
3. A source of information:"The index in the book provided the specific reference for which I was looking when doing my research."
4. A published work that provides extensive information on many subjects: "A dictionary is an excellent reference when looking up multiple meanings of words."
reverence (REV uhr uhns)
1. Devoted respect or honor for an individual; "The congregation showed a reverence towards the woman who had been their pastor for many years by endorsing her appeal for funds for hungry children in the community."
2. To treat with respect or honor: "We had reverence for our parents as they grew older."
 
refind, refined
refind (REE fighnd)
To get or to experience for more than one time: "He tried to refind his youth by going on a cross country trip with his motorcycle."
refined (ree FIN'd)
1. To have improved to be more precise or exact: "She refined her essay carefully before submitting it for publication."
2. To have overcome vulgarity or coarseness: "She came from a terribly impoverished background but the opportunity to go to school really refined her ability to speak and to act in an acceptable manner."
3. To have removed impurities: "The chemical process refined the ore into pure silver."
 
reflects, reflex
reflects (ri FLEKS)
1. To return or give back an image: "The new mirror reflects the colors in the room in a fresh manner."
2. To think in a calm and quiet manner: "She always reflects on her goals and her progress towards her goals."
3. To cause or to bring about a specific characterization: "His comment about his opponent reflects well on his sense of integrity and fair play."
4. To express a thought or opinion based on extensive thinking and pondering: "After an extensive period of seclusion, she reflects her observations and suggestions to her friends."
reflex (REE fleks")
1. An automatic response to a stimulus: "When the ball was thrown at me, my first reflex was to shut my eyes."
2. Something that a person does without thinking as a reaction to something: "Disagreeing with my suggestions seems to have become a reflex for my working colleague."
 
refuge, refugee
refuge (REF yooj)
A place of shelter and protection in times of crisis: "The church is often seen as a refuge for troubled individuals."
"The lady sought refuge in the library when she wanted peace and quiet."
refugee (ref" yoo JEE)
An individual who leaves a situation of stress or crisis and seeks protection and shelter elsewhere: "My aunt was a refugee from the flooded areas of the countryside."
 
refuse, refuse
refuse (ri FYOOZ)
1. To say that one will not accept something; such as, a gift or offer: "He decided to refuse the job offer because the pay was insufficient."
2. To say or to show that a person is not willing to do something that another person wants him/her to do: "After several attempts to get the woman to explain her bad behavior in the restaurant, she continued to refuse to answer the police officer's questions."
"Sometimes the public will refuse to accept the truth about bad eating habits and that the lack of exercise can cause obesity."
3. Not allowing someone to have something: "The embassy continued to refuse the reporter a visa to visit the country."
refuse (REF yoos)
1. Something like paper, trash, or garbage that has been thrown away: "The truck will be coming soon to pick up the cans full of refuse and to take them to the dump."
2. Items or material discarded or rejected as useless or worthless; rubbish: "We have to clean up the house and get all of that refuse into the dumpster."
The city dump is just too full; so, it may be necessary for city officials to refuse any more refuse for awhile.
 
regal, regale, regalia
regal (REE guhl)
Suitable for royalty; a kind of excellence: "The hotel was so elegant it looked regal to my appreciative eyes."
regale (ri GAYL)
To entertain or to amuse (a person or people) by telling stories describing experiences, etc.: "After dinner, our father used to regale us with stories of his childhood."
"My friend would often regale her party guests with stories of her adventures in Africa."
regalia (ri GAYL yuh, ri GAY lee uh)
Symbols of royalty; decorations or insignias of one's position or office: "The queen's regalia included a long train, a crown, and a sceptre."
"Because she was the mayor, my aunt wore the regalia of her office, including a heavy chain around her neck."
 
regime, regimen, regiment
regime (ray ZHEEM, ri ZHEEM)
1. A regular pattern for activities or behavior: "At boarding school we followed the regime of showering with cold water."
2. To describe a form of authority or governance: "The current regime at the office is very strict about overtime."
regimen (REJ uh muhn, REJ uh men")
A regular or systematic plan or structure of activities, typically intended to improve one's health: "During the winter she tries to follow a careful regimen of diet and exercise."
regiment (REJ uh muhnt)
1. A military unit typically composed of several battalions: "When my uncle was in the army, the dress colors of his regiment were green and purple."
2. To organize in a rigid and regulated manner: "For a joke, my sister tried to regiment her cats for the school parade."
3. To subject to uniformity: "The school principal attempted to regiment the pupils into neat rows of ten."
 
register, registrar
register (REJ i stuhr)
1. A written book or system of public records and information: "The election register was kept in a locked safe when the office was closed."
2. The vocal range of a singer voice or that of an instrument: "The register of the singer's voice of three octaves was amazing."
3. Formally to sign up for or to enroll for something: "When I stayed at the hotel, I had to register at the front desk before I could get a key to my room."
"I plan to register for three lecture courses this summer."
4. To suggest or to convey an impression: "Her name did not at first register with me and I was embarrassed when I realized that she was one of my former teachers."
"My drama teacher taught me how to register surprise in my face."
registrar (REJ i strahr", rej" i STRAHR)
The official of an educational institution responsible for maintaining records of student enrollment, applicants for admission, and academic records: "The office of the registrar was located in the same building as the president of the university."
 
repassed, repast
repassed (ri PAST)
1. To have returned or to be sent in the opposite direction: "Because the postal code was missing on the letter, it was repassed to the sender and would have to be sent again with the appropriate information."
2. To accept or to adopt for a second time "After much discussion and several revisions, the new tax measure was repassed at city hall."
repast (ri PAST)
A meal or feast: "The repast at the new restaurant lived up to the reputation of the chef."
"Our friend offered us a light repast before we started our trip."
 
reported, retorted, reputed
reported (ri PAWRT'd, ri POHRT'd)
1. To have made a written or verbal account of something: "The radio reported that there was a bad accident on the highway."
"The gym instructor reported on the new equipment for the gymnasium."
2. To herald the presence or arrival of something: "The cabin boy had climbed to the crow's nest on the ship and reported that land was in sight."
3. To bring a matter that had been under consideration back to a group for further discussion and recommendations: "The chairperson reported the recommendations for energy conservation to the mayor's committee."
4. To give a formal accounting for something: "The treasurer reported a balance in the city's accounts for the previous year."
retorted (ri TORT'd)
To have replied or answered back particularly in the context of an argument: "She was angry and retorted in an aggressive manner to the arguments being presented."
reputed (ri PYOOT'd)
1. Having a reputation: "She was reputed to have a green thumb and could make any garden bloom in the spring."
2. Said to be true, to exist, to have a specified identity, etc.: "My friend was hired for his reputed talents as a superior manager."
 
requirement, requisition
requirement (ri KWIGHR muhnt)
1. Something that is needed or which is essential: "Sunshine is a requirement for the garden to grow.""
2. That which is essential or necessary so that something else can occur: "Taking a math course is a requirement in order to finish your high school education."
requisition (rek" wi ZISH uhn)
1. An authoritative demand for something: "He completed a requisition for fresh vegetables to be delivered to the store every Wednesday."
2. A formal demand or request, typically between nations for the provision of something or the exchange of individuals: "At the end of the war, the general sent a requisition for all the prisoners to be released immediately."
3. A request for something that is available but not readily provided: "The doctor signed the requisition for additional flu vaccine for her clinic."
 
reserve, reserve
reserve (ri ZURV)
1. Characterized by not being very communicative nor volunteering information: "The witness had a steady reserve in the face of persistent questioning by the lawyer."
2. That which is set aside for later use: "We decided to keep the extra jar of strawberry jam in reserve for breakfast."
"We kept reserve funds in the sugar bowl for emergency expenses."
3. Members of the military forces who are not on active duty but can be called upon in emergencies: "My nephew was a reserve officer in the navy and was called upon to provide aid to ships during the severe storms at sea."
4. An area of a country that is set aside for a special purpose: "The mountain goats lived in the reserve high in the mountains."
reserve (RI surv)
To arrange for something to be saved: "We asked that the management reserve a table for us near the window of the restaurant."
 
resew, resow
resew (ri SOH)
To mend or to sew something for a second (or subsequent) time: "I was careless with my clothes and had to resew the buttons on from time to time."
resow (ri SOH)
To replant a garden, plants, or a field for a second (or subsequent) time: "The heavy rains flooded the field and the farmer had to resow his crops."
 
residence, residents
residence (REZ i duhns, REZ i dens")
1. The actual living place of an individual or people, as opposed to a temporary living place: "His residence was located on a shady street with a lovely lawn in front of it."
2. Often a reference to a large and impressive house where an important or wealthy person lives: "They spent three months at their summer residence."
3. A length of time that someone has lived in a location: "His forty year residence in our town was highlighted by his serving as mayor for three consecutive terms."
residents (REZ i duhnts, REZ i dents")
1. Individuals who live in a specific place: "The hotel residents paid for the use of the gym at the time they registered."
2. Doctors who are training at hospitals to become specialists in particular fields of medicine: "My cousins are both residents at our local hospital studying cardiology as their field of medical specialization."
 
resign, re-sign
resign (re ZIGHN)
1. To give up or to relinquish something: "She agreed to resign her position as treasurer of the group rather than face an inquiry into the missing funds."
2. Formally to renounce one's position in a government or other organizational situation: "The king decided to resign from the throne so he could marry the woman he loved."
3. To agree or to accept something as inevitable: "I feel I must resign myself to staying home on Friday night."
re-sign (ree SIGHN)
To sign a written or printed document which furnishes information for a second or more times: "Because my signature was illegible on the original check, I had to re-sign it when I went back to the bank."
 
re-sort, resort
re-sort (ree SORT)
To arrange again according to class, kind, or size; to classify again: "The library staff had to re-sort the books so they could include the new editions."
resort (ree ZORT)
1. A place frequented by people for relaxation or recreation: "We were thinking about going to the ski resort this winter."
2. Something chosen for help: "The company will only declare bankruptcy as a last resort."
 
respectable, respectful, respective
respectable (ri SPEK tuh buhl)
1. Proper, typically in reference to one's manners or demeanor: "He was a respectable young man and considered a good catch for the young ladies in our small town."
2. Tolerable, fair in size or amount: "His grades at school were considered respectable but not sufficiently strong enough to earn him a scholarship."
respectful (ri SPEKT fuhl)
Characterized by showing appreciation or courteous regard for someone: "Her respectful questions to the movie star were appreciated and answered thoroughly."
respective (ri SPEK tiv)
Belonging or relating to each one of the people or things that have been mentioned by someone: "After the meeting, we each went to our respective homes."
"They are all very successful in their respective fields of study."
 
respectably, respectfully, respectively
respectably (ri SPEKT tuh bli)
Something that is completed in a decent and morally reputable manner: "At the end of the story, the two love birds were respectably married and lived happily ever after."
respectfully (ri SPEKT fuhl li)
Acting in a way which shows that someone is aware of the rights, wishes, etc. of others: "The secretary for the meeting recorded that the deputy mayor respectfully suggested that the meeting be adjourned until the following week."
respectively (ri SPEKT tiv lee)
Singly in the order that is designated or mentioned: "When the teacher stated that the class did outstanding work, she was referring to each of the pupils respectively."
 
rest, wrest
rest (REST)
1. Cessation of work, exertion, or activity: "The workers had a rest in the shade during their lunch."
"She went to her room to rest for awhile after having a difficult day."
2. The part that is left over after something has been removed; the remainder: "The beginning of the film was boring, but the rest of it was interesting."
"The rest of them are arriving later."
3. To lie in a grave after death: "My grandmother was laid to rest next to my grandfather."
wrest (REST)
1. To obtain by or as if by pulling with violent twisting movements: "She was able to wrest her purse back from the guy who was trying to take it from her."
2. To take something from someone, or others, with much effort: "He was trying to wrest control of the company again from the guys who had taken it over."
 
restful, restive, restless
restful (REST fuhl)
Characterized by repose or quiet: "The cottage by the lake is a very restful place to spend the summer holidays."
restive (RES tiv)
Fidgety, characterized by moving around excessively: "When he felt restive, my uncle would walk around in his office in a nervous or stressful manner."
restless (REST lis)
1. Characterized as lacking peace of mind: "Her restless mind was always thinking of new plots for her series of novels."
2. Unhappy about a situation and wanting changes: "The president realized that the students were restless when they organized protest marches."
3. Having little or no relaxation or sleep: "We spent a restless night because of the strong winds and thunder storms."
 
résumé; resume; synopsis, summary
resumé (REZ oo may", rez" oo MAY)
A brief written account of one's accomplishments and qualifications, typically in the context of an application for a position of employment: "She submitted her three page résumé by fax when applying for the new job."
resume (ri ZOOM)
1. To restart or to begin again after an interruption: "After the applause died down, the speaker was encouraged to resume her presentation."
2. To return to a position or place again: "She is taking her vacation now, but she will resume her responsibilities when she returns."
"The speaker was about to resume his place at the podium."
synopsis (si NAHP sis)
A condensed statement or abstract of something: "She sent a two page synopsis of her thesis to the journal hoping that her research would be considered for publication."
summary (SUHM uh ree)
1. An abridgment of a written or verbal presentation: "Before the author started her presentation, she provided a summary of the book for the benefit of those who had not read it."
2. A comprehensive and succinct presentation of written or verbal information: "At the conclusion of his class report, the student presented a summary of the significant points which he made."
3. Being quickly accomplished: "The judge presented her summary judgment at the conclusion of the trial."
 
retain, retain
retain (ri TAYN)
1. To maintain possession of something in one's memory; especially, for a long time: "She has a remarkable ability to retain odd facts."
2. To keep or to hold in a particular place, condition, or position: "The TV show has been able to retain its popularity for many years."
retain (ri TAYN)
1. To hire (an attorney, for example) by the payment of a fee: "They have decided to retain a firm to conduct the survey and they may need to retain an attorney, too."
2. To keep in one's service or pay: "The company's goal is to attract and to retain good employees."
 
retard, retard, retarred
retard (ri TAHRD)
1. To cause to move or to proceed slowly; to delay or to impede: "The brakes on the wagon served to retard the descent of the wagon down the mountain trail."
2. A slowing down or a hindering of progress; a delay: "Being ill for several weeks was unfortunate as it caused a retard in my academic progression towards my degree."
retard (REE tahrd")
1. Used as a disparaging term for a mentally retarded person: "Many old educational text books described a slow learning person as a retard."
2. A person who is considered to be foolish or socially inept: "The child on the playground was rude, calling a boy a retard because he could not run very fast."
retarred (ri TAHRD)
1. To recover with a dark, oily, viscid mixture of hydrocarbons: "The stretch of road was worn and needed to be retarred so cars could use it safely."
2. To re-smear someone with a distillation of resinous woods, coal, etc. and then to cover with feathers as a punishment: "You would think that having been tarred and feathered last week, he would learn his lesson; however, he was retarred today because he tried to steal a loaf of bread."
 
retch, wretch
retch (RECH)
A strong, wrenching attempt to vomit that does not bring up anything: "I hate being seasick because it makes me want to retch."
wretch (RECH)
1. A miserable, unfortunate, or unhappy person: "The old woman was such a wretch that no one wanted to work with her."
2. Someone who is regarded as mean or despicable: "The hermit was perceived as an unwashed wretch by the people who lived nearby."
 
reticent, taciturn
reticent (RET i suhnt)
1. Inclined to keep one's thoughts, feelings, and personal affairs to oneself: "She was reticent about the cause for her feeling so sad."
2. Restrained or reserved in style; reluctant; unwilling: "My friend was reticent to help out during the harvest season on the farm because of an injured hand."
"He is reticent about discussing his past life."
taciturn (TAS i turn")
Habitually untalkative, tending to remain silent, or not speaking frequently: "The old farmer was taciturn and would rock silently in his chair for hours."
 
reveille, revelry
reveille (REV uh lee, REV i lee)
The sounding of a bugle early in the morning to awaken and to summon soldiers or sailors in a camp or garrison to wake up and to get out of bed: "The bugler used a sound system to enhance the reveille for morning wake up."
revelry (REV uhl ree)
Boisterous or noisy merrymaking: "At New Years, there is revelry on the streets until the early morning hours."
 
revel, revile
revel (REV uhl)
1. To take great pleasure or delight in something: "My aunt said she would revel in her unaccustomed leisure; especially, after retirement."
2. To engage in uproarious festivities; to make merry: "Over the holidays, we plan to revel with Christmas cakes and eggnog."
revile (ri VIGHL)
To use abusive language: "There is no excuse to revile the man since he is not here to explain what happened."
 
review, revue
review (ri VYOO)
1. A formal military ceremony typically in honor of an event or an individual: "The President attended the review which was held on the parade grounds."
2. A careful re-examination of something, typically of a judicial nature: "The local judge agreed to review the decision of the previous court's findings."
3. A magazine or an essay the purpose of which is to provide a critique of a publication, play, essay, etc.: "I wrote a review of the play I saw last night and sent it to my publisher."
4. To take a critical or retrospective look at an event, etc.: "I find that this end-of-the-year period is a good time to review the events of the past year."
revue (ri VYOO)
A production in a theater, typically featuring a variety of skits, songs, etc. that contain a common theme: "The actress was famous for the revue that she put on each year, singing and dancing all the familiar pieces."
 
rheum, room
rheum (ROOM)
A watery or thin mucous discharge from the eyes or nose: "When I have a cold, I carry a handkerchief to wipe the rheum from my nose and eyes."
room (ROOM)
1. To live in a room, apartment, or house with another person: "He will room with his brother in college."
2. The amount of space needed for an object or an activity: "The many plants my aunt grew needed a sunny room to grow in."
"The children played in the room next to the kitchen."
3. The possibility for something to happen or to exist: "There is considerable room for improvement as I revise the content of this writing project."
 
Rhodes, roads
Rhodes (ROHDZ)
1. A Greek island located in the southeast Aegean Sea just off the Turkish coast: "We spent our vacation on Rhodes, enjoying the Aegean sunshine and beaches."
2. A British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa who made a fortune in gold and diamond mining: "Cecil Rhodes used some of his wealth to establish scholarships for students to study at Oxford University."
roads (ROHDZ)
Open pathways or highways for the use of vehicular traffic: "We were pleased that the roads in the county were well maintained and comfortable to use."
 
rhumb, rum; rumba, rhumba
rhumb (RUHM, RUHMB)
Any of the points observed on the compass of a mariner: "The captain consulted the rhumb on his compass to navigate the narrow channel."
rum (RUHM)
1. An alcoholic drink made by the fermentation of a cane product; such as, molasses: "Rum earned a bad reputation in history books which often described men as raging drunk with rum."
2. Chiefly British, odd or difficult: "The editor was a rum character when dealing with new authors."
"Why do they persist in being such a rum lot?"
rumba, rhumba (RUHM buh, ROOM buh)
1. A dance of Cuban origin, combining complex footwork with a pronounced movement of the hips: "They danced the rumba for most of the night."
2. Music for this kind of Cuban dance or in this style: "The band played rumba music several times during the evening."
 
rhyme, rime
rhyme (RIGHM)
1. A verse writing in which there is a similarity of sound among the last words of a sentence or line of writing: "In her enthusiasm to describe the lovely countryside, the young author wrote a rhyme which created beautiful word pictures."
2. To write in such a manner that the last words of a line or sentence have similar sounds: "The author tried to find a word to rhyme with orange but he was not successful."
rime (RIGHM)
Frost, small ice particles which form on exposed surfaces when the temperatures are below freezing: "There was a rime of frost on the water trough for the cattle this morning."
 
riddle; riddle, riddled
riddle (RID'l), noun
1. A difficult question in a game or statement that requires thought to answer or to understand; a conundrum: "She loved to solve at at least one riddle everyday."
2. Someone or something which is difficult to understand or to solve: "We are constantly finding one riddle after another as we examine the history of science."
riddle, riddled (RID'l, RID'ld), verb
1. To pierce with numerous holes; to perforate: "In order to stop the criminal from speeding away, the police had to riddle the car with bullets."
2. To fill something that is bad or unpleasant: "The author obviously riddled his book with one error after another."
Did the author riddle his riddle with irrational suggestions?
Well, I'm convinced that the solution to the riddle was definitely riddled with too many false clues.
Here is an example of a riddle: What comes once in a minute, twice in a moment, but never in a thousand years? The letter "m".
Here's another riddle: What goes around and around the wood but never goes into the wood? The bark of a tree.
 
rift, rift
rift (RIFT)
A situation in which two people, groups, etc., no longer have a friendly relationship: "The son's behavior will only widen the rift with his mother."
rift (RIFT)
1. A deep crack or opening in the ground, a rock, the clouds, or other physical situations: "The rift in the clouds made it possible for us to see the new moon."
2. In geology, a break in the earth's crust: "Geologists are still trying to analyze the Mid-Atlantic Rift."
3. A gap or break in something where it has split apart: "The buildings are being torn down because of the rift in the ground which is causing rifts in the walls of several of the apartments."
 
rigger, rigor
rigger (RIG uhr)
1.Someone who furnishes or provides equipment for a specific use: "When he retired from whaling, my uncle became a rigger for other sailing ships."
2. Anyone who manipulates the outcome of an event; such as, an election: "The underground boss was found to be the rigger of the election results after an investigation by officials."
3. A slender paint brush typically made of sable: "For her art work, the famous artist used a rigger to create the fine points of paint in her paintings."
rigor (RIG uhr)
1. Characterized by being unyielding or inflexible: "The rigor of the judge's decision made it difficult for the lawyers to challenge the outcome of the trial."
2. Conditions that made life and subsistence difficult: "The rigor of the arctic winters made the expedition's tasks harder to achieve."
3. The quality or state of being very exact, careful, or strict: "They conducted the experiments with scientific rigor because they were being guided by a scholar known for her intellectual rigor."
4. Stiffness of tissue that prevents response to stimuli: "There was a rigor in the patient's arm that made it difficult for the doctor to examine her."
 
right, rite, wright, write
right (RIGHT)
1. Upright, correct, genuine, acting in accordance with facts or truth: "The laboratory tests proved that the scientists' theories were right."
"Our friend was right when she gave us directions to the local store."
"You did the right thing when you told the woman that she dropped her billfold out of her purse while she was walking in the store."
2. Situated on the body on the side which is away from the heart: "He raised his right hand to take the oath of allegiance."
3. Qualities of character that suggest an ideal: "Knowing the truth is her right."
4. Property ownership, often used in the plural: "She owned the mineral rights in the remote mountain region."
"He bought the film rights to the new novel based on the reputation of the author."
5. Often capitalized, to designate a political party or individual who is politically conservative: "Members of the Right have voiced their opinions on this economic proposal."
rite (RIGHT)
1. A defined manner or pattern of words and actions for a ceremony: "She knew the rite for the opening prayers of the meeting."
2. The prescribed or customary form for conducting a religious or other solemn ceremony: "Incense is often burned in this religious rite."
"The opening rite for the summer solstice was very elaborate."
wright (RIGHT)
Someone who constructs or repairs something; often used in combination with the type of vocation involved (playwright, shipwright, etc.): "The famous playwright is going to work with our theater's production of her new play."
write (RIGHT)
1. To inscribe words or figures on a surface: "She was asked to write the chemistry formula on the chalkboard."
2. To form (letters, words, or symbols) on a surface like paper with an instrument; such as, a pen, a pencil, a typewriter, etc.: "Her daily rite was to write in her diary and so it was easier for her to compose a blog with her computer."
"I intend to write a symphony before I am 20 years old."
"The author was determined to write his autobiography when he retired."
He tried to write about the playwright who wanted to depict the correct wedding ceremony or the right rite.
A minister of a church was asked if he and his congregation kneel to pray in his church. He responded with, "No, we stand up for our rites."
It was her rite (formal custom) to write so much, but was it right for her to expect her readers to read everything?
Bigamy is the only crime on the books where two rites make a wrong.
 
ring, wring
ring (RING)
1. A clear resonating sound made by striking an object; such as, metal or glass: "The church bells have a wonderful ring to them on a winter’s night."
"If you tap the glass carefully, you can hear it ring."
2. To place a telephone call: "I will ring you in the morning to confirm our luncheon date."
3. To encircle: "The low mountains ring the green valley."
4. A circular band often worn on a person's finger; or a circular band used to hold items: "I inherited a beautiful ring from my aunt and I wear it every day."
"My friend gave me a key ring so I would not lose my keys so often."
5. A square space often used for sporting events: "The boxers met in the ring for the boxing competition."
wring (RING)
1. The twisting of one's hands as an expression of anxiety: "I always knew my mother was worried when I saw her wring her hands."
2. To squeeze or to twist something in order to remove moisture: "Be sure to wring out the dish cloth before hanging it up."
3. To get something out of someone or something with a lot of effort: "They tried to wring every last dollar of profit out of the failing company."
 
ringer, wringer
ringer (RING uhr)
1. Something or someone who causes a sound; especially one that sounds a bell or chime: "He's the ringer of the cathedral bells that we hear every morning."
2. Someone who looks very much like another person: "He's a ringer for the President."
"She's a dead ringer for my friend Carol."
wringer (RING uhr)
Someone or something that wrings, squeezes, or compresses; especially, a device in which laundry is pressed between rollers to extract water: "The old fashioned washing machines had a hand wringer to squeeze the water from the laundry before it was hung to dry."
 
risk, risk
risk (RISK), noun
1. The possibility of suffering harm or loss; danger: "The couple emphasized that they didn't want to put their savings at risk with a questionable investment."
2. A factor, thing, element, or course of action involving uncertain danger; a hazard: "They discovered that they had to be prepared to face the risk of rattlesnakes, heat, and the lack of water in the desert."
"As far as I am concerned, skydiving is not worth the risk."
3. Someone, or something, that is judged to be a good or a bad choice for insurance, a loan, etc.: "The bank will determine if the man is a good credit risk for the loan he has requested."
risk (RISK) verb
1. To put something in a situation in which it could be lost, damaged, etc.: "She was willing to risk her life to save her children."
2. To do something that might have harmful or bad results: "She was advised not to risk physical harm by traveling so soon after her operation."
 
risky; risque, risqué
risky (RIS kee)
1. Accompanied by or involving danger; hazardous: "Driving in this weather can be very risky."
2. Involving the possibility of something bad or unpleasant happening: "This investment could be a risky move for the company."
risque, risqué (ris KAY)
1. Suggestive of or bordering on indelicacy or impropriety: "Why does that talk-show host have to be so risque in his conversation?"
2. Referring to sex in a rude and slightly shocking way: "I was surprised that she would tell such a risqué joke."
A "call girl" is a woman whose calling is a calculated risque.
Using risqué as part of an act has been labeled as a risky kind of blue material a comedian resorts to when he, or she, runs out of gray matter.
 
road, rode, rowed
road (ROHD)
An open, generally public way for the passage of vehicles, people, and animals: "There was great debate whether to impose a tax on the new road that was built."
rode (ROHD)
1. To have traveled in a vehicle or on an animal: "We rode the horses back to the camp in the valley."
"We rode in the back seat of the jeep."
2. To have been anchored: "The ship rode at anchor in the harbor."
3. To have survived, usually accompanied by the word out: "By careful management, we rode out the previous economic downturn."
rowed (ROHD)
To have moved or propelled a boat through the use of oars or polls: "They rowed the life boat safely to shore."
Jerry rode along as we rowed the boat from the island to the lakeside road.
 
roam, Rome
roam (ROHM)
To wander, or to go from place to place, not necessarily with a designated purpose: "For my summer vacation, I intend to pack my bags and roam throughout the countryside."
"When they are thirsty, the cattle will roam all day looking for water."
Rome (ROHM)
1. A city in Italy which is the center of political and religious activity: "When we were children, we visited Rome, Italy, and went to see some of the famous ancient Roman ruins."
2. The name of at least two different cities in the United States: "Just for fun, I want to go to see Rome, New York and Rome, Georgia."
 
roar, rower
roar (ROHR)
1. To utter or to create a loud noise which may communicate pain or excitement: "Lions tend to roar when they are hungry."
"I dare you not to roar with laughter when you read this book."
2. A loud and often confusing sound: "It was difficult to speak with my friend over the roar of the crowd in the stadium."
rower (ROHR)
Someone who uses oars or polls to propel a boat: "My cousin was the lead rower for the boat regatta at his university."
 
roc, rock
roc (RAHK)
A mythical bird of prey having enormous size and strength: "A winged roc with golden wings was featured in the myth about the sailors who were ship wrecked in the Aegean Sea."
rock (RAHK)
1. A relatively hard, naturally formed mineral or petrified matter; stone: "We ordered a load of crushed rock to use in the driveway."
2. A naturally formed aggregate of mineral matter constituting a significant part of the earth's crust: "The Laurentian Shield in Canada is a layer of granite rock in Northern Canada which makes it difficult for trees to grow."
3. Shaking or moving back and forth: "His mother started to rock the baby to sleep while sitting in the rocking chair."
4. Popular music which is typically amplified: "They were getting ready to go to the rock concert downtown this evening."
5. Used in phrases to say that something is hard, steady, reliable, etc.: "He works out quite often at the fitness studio, which is why when you touch his arm you sense that it is as solid as a rock."
 
roe, row, row, row
roe (ROH)
1. The eggs or the egg-laden ovary of a fish: "They were selling salmon roe at the fish market."
2. The egg mass or spawn of certain crustaceans, such as the lobster: "When the lobster was picked up out of the water, you could see the roe under its tail."
3. A rather small, delicately formed Eurasian deer (Capreolus capreolus) having short branched antlers in the male and a brownish coat: "When we went for a walk in the woods, we saw a roe deer just ahead of us."
row (ROH)
1. A series of objects placed next to each other, usually in a straight line: "In the class room, the desks were arranged six to a row."
2. A succession without a break or gap in time: "They won the football title for three years in a row."
3. A line of adjacent seats, as in a theater, auditorium, or classroom: "We were happy to get seats for the movie near the back row."
4. A continuous line of buildings along a street: "We were trying to find the right row of buildings where our friends lived."
row (ROH)
1. To propel a boat with or as if with oars: "The crew wanted to row the boat so they could win the rowing award."
2. To carry in or on a boat propelled by oars: "The only way we can get to the other side of the river is to row across it."
row (ROU)
1. A boisterous disturbance or quarrel; a brawl: "The opposing forces had a row in the streets last night."
2. An uproar; a great noise: "There was a row in the stadium as the opposing team made the final touchdown."
3. Any dispute or disturbance: "The wife got into a terrible row with her husband while they were walking down the street."
There was a row among the oarsmen about how to row the boat, then later, there was another row about how they would divide the roe that were in the row of boxes they had placed on the wharf.
 
rogue, rogue
rogue (ROHG)
An unscrupulous or dishonest person; sometimes someone who is also likable: "My friend's father was a lovable old rogue and sometimes even a lying old rogue."
rogue (ROHG)
1. Acting independently and using unorthodox methods that are unpredictable and sometimes are likely to cause trouble: "People were complaining about how the rogue police were committing criminal acts."
"Former Governor Sarah Palin completed her memoir, titled Going Rogue: An American Life about which one reviewer stated that she was the complainer-in-chief."
2. An animal that is vicious and uncontrolled and which lives apart from the rest of the herd or group: "Hunters were looking for the rogue elephant that was attacking other elephants and even the the gardens and living quarters of some of the local natives."
 
roil, rile, royal
roil (ROIL)
1. To make (a liquid) muddy or cloudy by stirring up sediment: "My little niece used a stick to roil the puddle in the back yard, making it very muddy."
2. To displease or to disturb; to vex: "Teenagers often roil their parents as they strive to achieve independence."
rile (RIGHL)
1. To stir to anger: "The gossip I read in the newspaper really served to rile me so I wrote a letter to the editor."
2. To stir up (liquid); to make a fluid cloudy or muddy by stirring around (a variation of roil): "The directions said to rile the medicine in a glass of water until the mixture was cloudy."
royal (ROI uhl)
1. Of or relating to a monarch or a king or queen: "The butler announced that the royal guests would arrive on the morning train."
2. Of, relating to, or in the service of a kingdom: "My cousin was accepted into the royal guards which are featured in the palace parades."
 
roll, role
roll (ROHL)
1. A list or record of names or related items: "The roll of students' names contained many that were familiar to the principal."
2. To cause to move in a circular fashion: "When the boy kicked the ball, it started to roll down the hill."
3. To shape or to wrap something into a ball shape: "Before tossing the scrap paper into the recycling bin, I will roll it into a ball."
4. To continually shift one's eyes, frequently in a context of amazement or fear: "I saw her eyes roll while she watched the sword swallower at the circus."
role (ROHL)
1. The part in a play or similar production undertaken by an actor: "She got the lead role in the romantic play which the drama department was preparing to present to the public."
2. Patterns of social behavior as suggested by one's status in a group: "My uncle's role at family gatherings was as the wise and kindly friend."
 
roo, rue, rue
roo (ROO)
A shortened term for kangaroo: "While driving in Australia, a roo hopped across the road in front of our car."
rue (ROO)
To feel regret, remorse, or sorrow: "We were afraid that we would rue investing in that automobile company."
"I rue the day that I signed that contract in May."
rue (ROO)
A woody herb plant, the leaves of which are bitter and are included in some medications: "When I was ill, the doctor prescribed a medication made with rue and it tasted bitter, but it worked."
 
rood, rude, rued
rood (ROOD)
1. A large crucifix typically hanging at the entrance of a medieval church: "The rood was made of fine wood and was intricately carved by a local master."
2. A unit of measurement equal to 7 or 8 yards or about 63 meters: "The surveyor measured off six rood to be the length of the garden."
rude (ROOD)
1. Unfinished, crude: "She submitted a rude sketch of her planned painting to her teacher for a critique."
2. Not refined, offensive: "His manners were considered rude even though I knew his mother would have told him to be polite when visiting friends."
rued (ROOD)
Having felt regret, remorse, or sorrow for something: "I rued the day I moved to the country because I was so bored."
 
roomer, rumor
roomer (ROO muhr)
Someone who rents a room or rooms in which to live; a lodger: "He has been a roomer in that hotel for years."
rumor (ROO muhr)
A piece of unverified information of uncertain origin usually spread by word of mouth; hearsay: "There is a rumor going around that this store is going out of business."
A rooming house is where roomers spread rumors about other roomers.
 
root, route, en route, rout
root (ROOT)
1. Typically the part of a plant that grows underground: "When I planted the new rose bush, I put fertilizer around the root so it would grow better."
2. The part of the tooth that extends into the bone socket in the jaw: "The dentist had to drill in order to remove the infected root in my jaw because I was in a lot of pain."
3. The basics or essential core of a situation: "Sometimes they say that money is the root of all evil, but I don’t accept that as always being the truth."
The full quotation suggests that an excessive love of money is the "root of evil" not necessarily money itself: "For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows." (From 1 Timothy 6:10 in the King James Bible).
4. A word origin from which other words are formed: "Many words have been integrated into English from one Latin root after another; resulting in thousands of Latin and Greek roots that provide us with tens of thousands of vocabulary words that are utilized in multitudes of academic, technical, medical, scientific, and other areas."
route (ROOT, ROUT)
1. A designated course of travel; "We planned our route carefully before starting our trip."
2. A territory to be serviced: "The newspaper carrier had an extensive route for delivering the papers in the morning."
3. To direct someone in a specific direction: "The traffic control officer will route us to the most direct road to the market place."
en route (ahn ROOT, en ROOT)
On or along the way: "I used my cell phone to call my mother to let her know we were en route to her home."
rout (ROUT)
1. A disorderly retreat or flight following a defeat: "From the hillside, the spectators watched the rout of the army after the battle."
2. To dig with the snout; to root or to poke around; to rummage: "There are pigs who rout for truffles in the forests in France."
"As I watched, the homeless person tried to rout in the dust bin for a pair of shoes."
 
rose, rosé, rows, roes, rouse
rose (ROHZ)
1. Any of a number of plants characterized by showy flowers and prickly stems: "I bought a new pink rose bush for the garden."
"I bought a single red rose for the vase on the piano."
2. Flavored or scented like a flower from the Rosaceae family: "My mother loved a rose scented perfume and we gave her a bottle for her birthday."
3. To have moved from a lying down position to an upright position: "When the alarm clock rang, I rose from my bed and took a cold shower to help me wake up."
4. To have achieved a promotion or an elevated rank: "Through hard work my nephew rose from being a clerk in the store to being the manager."
rosé (roh ZAY)
A light pink wine made from purple grapes, with the skins being removed from the juice during fermentation as soon as the desired color has been attained: "I brought a bottle of rosé to the party at my friend's home."
rows (ROHZ)
1. The act of propelling a boat by using oars: "I noticed she was very athletic and she rows the boat with ease."
2. Several lines of objects arranged in a straight line: "There were ten rows of chairs set up in the auditorium."
roes (ROHZ)
A short term for roe deer or rather small, delicately formed Eurasian deer having short branched antlers in the male and a brownish coat: "During our walk in the park, we saw the small herd of roes vanish into the shadows."
rouse (ROUZ)
1. To awaken: "I was so tired it was difficult to rouse myself in this morning so I could get to work on time."
2. To create an excitement within a group: "The orator was able to rouse the crowd which cheered and applauded loudly."
 
roster, rostrum
roster (RAHS tuhr, RAH stuhr)
An itemized list, typically of people's names: "She glanced down the roster to see if her friend had registered for the same lecture course as she had."
rostrum (RAHS truhm, RAW struhm)
1. A stage or raised platform for public speaking: "The carpenters built a rostrum for the speakers at the film festival."
2. A curved shape suggestive of a bird's beak, or bill, or the snout of some insects: "The ornithologist classified the unusual bird based on the rostrum of its beak."
 
rot, wrought
rot (RAHT)
1. To become morally corrupt or degenerated: "On the basis of his observed life style, I was afraid my cousin would rot and die an early death."
2. To decay or to decompose: "We put the vegetable trimmings on the compost pile to rot so we would have rich soil for the garden in the spring."
3. A plant disease characterized by the breakdown of tissue, caused by bacteria or fungi: "We had to use a special spray to get rid of the rot on my favorite rose bush."
wrought (RAWT)
1. To fashion or to form in an artistic manner: "The blacksmith wrought an elegant iron gate for our garden."
2. Excited or deeply affected: "I was wrought with sorrow when I read about the sinking of the Titanic in 1912."
 
rote, wrote
rote (ROHT)
1. A memorizing process using a routine system or repetition, often without full attention or comprehension: "As a child, she learned the multiplication tables by rote."
2. A mechanical routine: "Operating the wringer is such a rote activity that I think I could do it in my sleep."
wrote (ROHT)
1. To have drafted or formed letters or numbers on a surface with a pen, pencil, etc.: "I wrote a thank you note to my aunt for the lovely gift she sent me for my birthday."
"The composer wrote his first symphony before he was twelve years old."
2. Having created a book, poem, story, etc. by writing words on paper, on a computer, etc.: "My friend wrote hundreds of poems during her lifetime as well as many articles for the local newspaper."
3. To have put information into the storage system of a computer: "He wrote the secret formula in code and then he uploaded it onto a separate disk."
 
rough, ruff
rough (RUHF)
1. An uneven, broken surface such as a road: "The road was so rough it was difficult to drive our car very fast."
2. Turbulent, challenging, or difficult: "The stormy seas were so rough even the sailors were feeling a bit sea sick."
"When I met my friends this morning, we all talked about how rough the college examination was which we had written yesterday."
3. Something that is unfinished or appears to be crude: "The rough sketch of the sunset over the lake was charming and the painter was eager to complete the painting."
4. An area on a golf course covered with tall grass that makes it difficult to hit the ball: "He hit his drive into the rough."
ruff (RUHF)
1. A stiff, circular collar worn by men and women during the 16th and 17th centuries: "The pictures of my ancestors show them each wearing a ruff around the neck, but I had the impression that the people seemed to be uncomfortable."
2. A frill or collar of fur or feathers characteristic of some animals: "I could see the male lion had a distinctive ruff around his neck."
"The grouse ruffles his ruff when he is courting."
 
rung, wrung
rung (RUHNG)
1. To have caused a sonorous or reverberating sound: "After I had rung the door bell, I waited for the butler to admit me to the spacious hall."
2. To have caused a sound by striking a surface: "Those bells have rung on New Year's Eve every year for 100 years."
3. A piece of wood or metal that is placed between the legs of a chair for support: "We had to get the chair repaired after the rung was broken when my brother stood on it so he could reach the upper book shelf."
4. A position or level within a group, organization, etc., which is higher than others: "He was on the bottom rung of the corporate ladder before he rose to the highest rung on the pay scale.
wrung (RUHNG)
1. To have squeezed an item so as to remove as much liquid from it as possible: "Have you wrung out the dishcloth and hung it up to dry?"
2. To have twisted one's hands as an expression of worry or anxiety: "She wrung her hands in despair because the telephone did not ring."
3. To have created a sense of tragedy and grief: "The play was so powerful, my heart was wrung with sorrow for the lead actor by the end of the first act."
 
rye, wry
rye (RIGH)
1. A type of grass that is grown as a grain and used to make flour or whiskey: "The farmer sold his rye to the distillery for a good price."
2. The alcoholic drink distilled from the grains of a plant: "He went to the bar and ordered rye and soda, which is his favorite drink."
3. Bread that is made from rye flour: "We both ordered a ham sandwich on rye bread for our afternoon snack."
wry (RIGH)
1. Marked by an expression of grim humor or irony: "His wry expression made me laugh because his books are noted for their wry humor."
2. Showing both amusement and a feeling of being tired, annoyed, etc.: "When she was asked how she felt after winning the marathon, she gave the reporter a wry smile and said, 'Pretty tired'."
 







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